The Crown of Thorns


Publisher:Penn State Press


Total Pages:200



Books Description:

Conscience, once a core concept for ethics, has mostly disappeared from modern moral theory. In this book Douglas Langston traces its intellectual history to account for its neglect while arguing for its still vital importance, if correctly understood. In medieval times, Langston shows in Part I, the notions of "conscientia" and "synderesis" from which our contemporary concept of conscience derives were closely connected to Greek ideas about the virtues and practical reason, although in Christianized form. As modified by Luther, Butler, and Kant, however, conscience later came to be regarded as a faculty like will and intellect, and when faculty psychology fell into disrepute, so did the role of conscience in moral philosophy. A view of mature conscience that sees it as relational, with cognitive, emotional, and conative dimensions, can survive the criticisms of conscience as faculty. In Part II, through discussions of Freud, Ryle, and other modern thinkers, Langston proceeds to reconstruct conscience as a viable philosophical concept. Finally, in Part III, this better grounded concept is connected with the modern revival of virtue ethics, and Langston shows how crucial conscience is to a theory of virtue because it is fundamental to the training of any morally good person.

Related Titles:

Conscience in Moral Life

Author:Jason J. Howard

Publisher:Rowman & Littlefield


Total Pages:226



Books Description:

An innovative and original study of the history, moral phenomenology and reliability of the concept of conscience.

Liberty, Conscience, and Toleration

Author:Andrew R. Murphy

Publisher:Oxford University Press


Total Pages:320



Books Description:

In a seventeenth-century English landscape populated with towering political and philosophical figures like Hobbes, Harrington, Cromwell, Milton, and Locke, William Penn remains in many ways a man apart. Yet despite being widely neglected by scholars, he was a sophisticated political thinker who contributed mightily to the theory and practice of religious liberty in the early modern Atlantic world. In this long-awaited intellectual biography of William Penn, Andrew R. Murphy presents a nuanced portrait of this remarkable entrepreneur, philosopher, Quaker, and politician. Liberty, Conscience, and Toleration focuses on the major political episodes that attracted William Penn's sustained attention as a political thinker and actor: the controversy over the Second Conventicle Act, the Popish Plot and Exclusion Crisis, the founding and settlement of Pennsylvania, and the contentious reign of James II. Through a careful examination of writings published in the midst of the religious and political conflicts of Restoration and Revolutionary England, Murphy contextualizes the development of Penn's thought in England and America, illuminating the mutual interconnections between Penn's political thought and his colonizing venture in America. An early advocate of representative institutions and religious freedom, William Penn remains a singular figure in the history of liberty of conscience. His political theorizing provides a window into the increasingly vocal, organized, and philosophically sophisticated tolerationist movement that gained strength over the second half of the seventeenth century. Not only did Penn attempt to articulate principles of religious liberty as a Quaker in England, but he actually governed an American polity and experienced firsthand the complex relationship between political theory and political practice. Murphy's insightful analysis shows Penn's ongoing significance to the broader study of Anglo-American political theory and practice, ultimately pointing scholars toward a new way of understanding the enterprise of political theory itself.

The Performance Tradition of the Medieval English University

Author:Thomas Meacham

Publisher:Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG


Total Pages:210



Books Description:

This is a truly paradigm-shifting study that reads a key text in Latin Humanist studies as the culmination, rather than an early example, of a tradition in university drama. It persuasively argues against the common assumption that there was no "drama" in the medieval universities until the syllabus was influenced by humanist ideas, and posits a new way of reading the performative dimensions of fourteenth and fifteenth-century university education in, for example, Ciceronian tuition on epistolary delivery. David Bevington calls it "an impressively learned discussion" and commends the sophistication of its use of performativity theory.

Toward an Anabaptist Political Theology

Author:A. James Reimer

Publisher:Wipf and Stock Publishers


Total Pages:214



Books Description:

A. James Reimer's (1942-2010) theopolitical project, intended to be a fully theologically conceptualized political theology, offers a constructive and creative contribution to this burgeoning field of theological inquiry. Reimer's thesis for this theologically derived politics focuses on the necessity to take seriously the biblical-Trinitarian foundations for all Christian social ethics, but also on the importance of astute and faithful engagement by Christians in public institutional life, including the political realm. While Reimer understood himself to be working as an Anabaptist, and hoped to invite that tradition to embrace a more positive view of civil institutions than has historically been the case, he was not limited by that tradition or beholden to take only its sources into account. Ever alert to the problems inherent in every kind of reductionism, and especially so in cases where theology is reduced to either ethics or politics, Reimer's political theology pursues the investigation of theological realities that are to serve as the engine, the generative force of a political theology that seeks to articulate both a critical and a positive-constructive approach to public/political life and institutions.

The Single Individual and the Searcher of Hearts

Author:Jeff Morgan

Publisher:Bloomsbury Publishing


Total Pages:192



Books Description:

Jeff Morgan argues that both Immanuel Kant and Søren Kierkegaard think of conscience as an individual's moral self-awareness before God, specifically before the claim God makes on each person. This innovative reading corrects prevailing views that both figures, especially Kant, lay the groundwork for the autonomous individual of modern life – that is, the atomistic individual who is accountable chiefly to themselves as their own lawmaker. This book first challenges the dismissal of conscience in 20th-century Christian ethics, often in favour of an emphasis on corporate life and corporate self-understanding. Morgan shows that this dismissal is based on a misinterpretation of Immanuel Kant's practical philosophy and moral theology, and of Søren Kierkegaard's second authorship. He does this with refreshing discussions of Stanley Hauerwas, Oliver O'Donovan, and other major figures. Morgan instead situates Kant and Kierkegaard within a broad trajectory in Christian thought in which an individual's moral self-awareness before God, as distinct from moral self-awareness before a community, is an essential feature of the Christian moral life.

Consciousness and Self-Knowledge in Medieval Philosophy

Author:Gyula Klima,Alex Hall

Publisher:Cambridge Scholars Publishing


Total Pages:115



Books Description:

Contemporary introductions to the theme of self-knowledge too often trace its emergence in the history of philosophy to thinkers such as René Descartes and David Hume. Whereas Descartes conceives of self-knowledge as intimate and first-personal, Hume contends that it is limited to our awareness of our impressions and ideas. In point of fact, self-knowledge is a perennial theme. We may, for instance, trace the lineage of Hume and Descartes on these matters to Aristotle and Plato, respectively. This volume studies philosophical treatments of self-knowledge in the Medieval Latin West. It comprises two sets of papers; the first is taken from an author-meets-critics session on Therese Scarpelli-Cory’s Aquinas on Human Self Knowledge, which advances the thesis that Aquinas’s theory of self-knowledge wherein the intellect grasps itself in its activity bridges the divide between mediated and first-personal self-knowledge. The second set of papers discuss self-knowledge in terms of self-fulfilment. Authors look to Aquinas’s account of how we can know when we have acquired the virtues necessary for human happiness, as well as the medieval traditions of mysticism and theology, which offer accounts of transformative self-knowledge, the fulfilment that this brings to our emotional and physical selves, and the authority to teach and counsel about what this awareness confers.

Contract, Culture, and Citizenship

Author:Mark E. Button

Publisher:Penn State Press


Total Pages:280



Books Description:

The idea of the social contract has typically been seen in political theory as legitimating the exercise of governmental power and creating the moral basis for political order. Mark Button wants to draw our attention to an equally crucial, but seldom emphasized, role for the social contract: its educative function in cultivating the habits and virtues that citizens need to fulfill the promises that the social contract represents. In this book, he retells the story of social contract theory as developed by some of its major proponents—Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Rawls—highlighting this constructive feature of the theory in order to show that not only do citizens make the social contract, but the social contract also makes citizens. Button’s interest in recovering this theme from past political theory is not merely historical, however. He means to resurrect our concern for it so that we can better understand the political-institutional and cultural-ethical conditions necessary for balancing individual freedom and common citizenship in our modern world of moral pluralism. Drawing on the history of public reason, Button shows how political justification continues to depend upon an ethics of character formation and why this matters for citizens today.

The Development and Structure of Conscience

Author:Willem Koops,Daniel Brugman,Tamara J. Ferguson,Andries F. Sanders

Publisher:Psychology Press


Total Pages:376



Books Description:

This book focuses on the structure and development of conscience, a subject that has been dominant in developmental psychology since the 18th century. International experts in the field contribute to this broad overview of the relevant research on the development of moral emotions and on the Kohlbergian-originated cognitive aspects of moral development. The first section of the book focuses on the cultural conditions that create the context for the development of conscience, such as moral philosophy, religion, and media violence. Building on the theory and research on emotion, other chapters cover issues including the development of shame, self regulation and moral conduct, social cognition, and models of guilt. The book also covers moral reasoning, moral identity, moral atmosphere, moral behavior, and discusses subjects such as lying, how to measure moral development, the impact of parenting, the dysfunctions of conscience evident in narcissism, psychopathy, issues surrounding gender, and aggression. The Development and Structure of Conscience will be ideal reading for researchers and students of developmental and educational psychology.

Living with Religious Diversity in Early-Modern Europe

Author:Dagmar Freist



Total Pages:328



Books Description:

Current scholarship continues to emphasise both the importance and the sheer diversity of religious beliefs within early modern societies. Furthermore, it continues to show that, despite the wishes of secular and religious leaders, confessional uniformity was in many cases impossible to enforce. As the essays in this collection make clear, many people in Reformation Europe were forced to confront the reality of divided religious loyalties, and this raised issues such as the means of accommodating religious minorities who refused to conform and the methods of living in communion with those of different faiths. Drawing together a number of case studies from diverse parts of Europe, Living with Religious Diversity in Early Modern Europe explores the processes involved when groups of differing confessions had to live in close proximity - sometimes grudgingly, but often with a benign pragmatism that stood in opposition to the will of their rulers. By focussing on these themes, the volume bridges the gap between our understanding of the confessional developments as they were conceived as normative visions and religious culture at the level of implementation. The contributions thus measure the religious policies articulated by secular and ecclesiastical elites against the 'lived experience' of people going about their daily business. In doing this, the collection shows how people perceived and experienced the religious upheavals of the confessional age and how they were able to assimilate these changes within the framework of their lives.

Conscience in Recovery from Alcohol Addiction

Author:Yordan Kalev Zhekov

Publisher:Wipf and Stock Publishers


Total Pages:378



Books Description:

Academic research in alcohol addiction presents diverse results and subject inadequacies. This study identifies conscience and its influence through spirituality on successful recovery as promoting unity and adequacy in the field. The purpose of the study is to analyze the relationship between conscience, spirituality, and recovery from alcohol addiction. This threefold framework underlines the conceptual importance of cognition, affect, behavior, spirituality, and character in addiction studies. Narrative analysis (NA) is employed for designing the present research. It is utilized for collection, examination, and formulation of the results derived from the participants' stories. Semi-structured interviews are used within the NA framework to provide the data from the twelve participants. The latter are selected as a homogeneous group based on characteristics of their addiction, spirituality, and recovery. The analysis of narratives defines conscience with its cognitive, emotive, and conative elements as related to spirituality. The conscience's nature and functioning undergo deterioration during addiction and complete rejuvenation through participants' spiritual transformation of a transcendent divine experience. Spiritually empowered conscience supports progressive recovery from alcohol addiction. The conscientious approach to self, life, and others is shaped by virtue and spiritual commitment.

AQA A-level Religious Studies Year 2

Author:John Frye,Debbie Herring,Mel Thompson

Publisher:Hodder Education


Total Pages:384



Books Description:

Exam Board: AQA Level: AS/A-level Subject: Religious Studies First Teaching: September 2016 First Exam: June 2018 Engage students with accessible content that draws out the key theories, ensuring students have a thorough understanding of Christianity and the philosophical and ethical issues; developed by subject specialist John Frye and the leading Religious Studies publisher*. - Confidently teach 'Philosophy and religion' and 'Ethics, religion and society' with comprehensive coverage of the key philosophers, concepts and theories along with sources of theological authority - Supports learning and revision with a range of contemporary activities, discussion points and unit summaries - Prepares students for assessment with revision questions at the end of each chapter and practice questions tailored to the assessment objectives Content covered: Philosophy and religion Sections A and B (Section A is covered through Christianity) Ethics, religion and society Sections A and B (Section A is covered through Christianity) *Taken from Educational Publishers Council statistics

The Renaissance Conscience

Author:Harald E. Braun,Edward Vallance

Publisher:John Wiley & Sons


Total Pages:176



Books Description:

This book presents one of the first studies of the Renaissance notion of conscience, through examining theological manuals, legal treatises, letters and other sources of the period. Represents one of the few modern studies exploring developments in scholastic and Renaissance notions of conscience Synthesizes literary, theological and historical approaches Presents case studies from England and the Hispanic World that reveal shared traditions, strategies, and conclusions regarding moral uncertainty Sheds new light on the crises of conscience of ordinary people, as well as prominent individuals such as Thomas More Offers new research on the ways practical theologians in England, Spain, and France participated in political debate and interacted with secular counsellors and princes

Ethical Rationalism and Secularisation in the British Enlightenment

Author:Dafydd Mills Daniel

Publisher:Springer Nature


Total Pages:344



Books Description:

This book reassesses the ethics of reason in the Age of the Reason, making use of the neglected category of conscience. Arguing that conscience was a central feature of British Enlightenment ethical rationalism, the book explores the links between Enlightenment philosophy and modern secularisation, while responding to longstanding criticisms of rational intuitionism and the analogy between mathematics and morals, derived from David Hume and Immanuel Kant. Questioning in what sense British Enlightenment ethical rationalism can be associated with a secularising ‘Enlightenment project’, Daniel investigates the extent to which contemporary, and secular liberal, invocations of reason and conscience rely on the early modern Christian metaphysics they have otherwise disregarded. The chapters cover a rich collection of subjects, ranging from the Enlightenment’s secular legacy, reason and conscience in the history of ethics, and controversies in the Scottish Enlightenment, to the role of British moralists such as John Locke, Joseph Butler and Adam Smith in the secularisation of reason and conscience. Each chapter expertly refines Enlightenment ethical rationalism by reinterpreting its most influential proponents in eighteenth-century Britain – the followers of ‘Isaac Newton’s bulldog’ Samuel Clarke – including Richard Price (Edmund Burke’s opponent over the French Revolution) and John Witherspoon (the only clergyman to sign the US declaration of Independence).

The Routledge Handbook of Social Work Ethics and Values

Author:Stephen M. Marson,Robert E. McKinney, Jr.



Total Pages:422



Books Description:

The Routledge Handbook of Social Work Ethics and Values is a comprehensive exploration and assessment of current and future issues facing social work practice and education. It is the first book to codify ethical practices for social workers from across the globe and in myriad workplace settings. Each section meaningfully captures this complex subject area: ethics writ large visions of diverse values abortion relationship and gender issues micro and mezzo practice settings social work education technological issues spirituality globalism economic issues special topics Leaving no stone unturned, this handbook comprehensively addresses the most controversial topics in an evenhanded manner. Among professional social workers, values and ethics traverse political boundaries, cultural identifications, and languages. This handbook will help to make sense of this unity within diversity. With contributions from the world’s leading scholars, this book will be a valuable resource for all social work students, academics, researchers, and practitioners who seek a coherent and objective analysis in the abstract arena of ethics and values.

Ethics for A-Level

Author:Mark Dimmock,Andrew Fisher

Publisher:Open Book Publishers


Total Pages:262



Books Description:

What does pleasure have to do with morality? What role, if any, should intuition have in the formation of moral theory? If something is ‘simulated’, can it be immoral? This accessible and wide-ranging textbook explores these questions and many more. Key ideas in the fields of normative ethics, metaethics and applied ethics are explained rigorously and systematically, with a vivid writing style that enlivens the topics with energy and wit. Individual theories are discussed in detail in the first part of the book, before these positions are applied to a wide range of contemporary situations including business ethics, sexual ethics, and the acceptability of eating animals. A wealth of real-life examples, set out with depth and care, illuminate the complexities of different ethical approaches while conveying their modern-day relevance. This concise and highly engaging resource is tailored to the Ethics components of AQA Philosophy and OCR Religious Studies, with a clear and practical layout that includes end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, and common mistakes to avoid. It should also be of practical use for those teaching Philosophy as part of the International Baccalaureate. Ethics for A-Level is of particular value to students and teachers, but Fisher and Dimmock’s precise and scholarly approach will appeal to anyone seeking a rigorous and lively introduction to the challenging subject of ethics. Tailored to the Ethics components of AQA Philosophy and OCR Religious Studies.

The Light of Grace: John Owen on the Authority of Scripture and Christian Faith

Author:Andrew Leslie

Publisher:Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht


Total Pages:300



Books Description:

Over the past several centuries, John Owen’s writings on scripture have captured the attention of numerous interpreters across a relatively diverse range of disciplines. His own distinctive contribution to this doctrine was forged with a genuine fear for the on-going pre-eminence of scriptural authority in the English church firmly in view. In the face of various rival perspectives, Owen insists every Christian believer ought to be clear on the reason they believe scripture to be the word of God. Focussing on the treatise Reason of Faith (1677) in conversation with his wider theological corpus, Andrew M. Leslie studies Owen’s approach to scriptural authority and Christian faith. He argues that Owen creatively drew upon an ecumenical dogmatic and metaphysical heritage to restate and refine the traditional Reformed position on scripture’s divine authority, sensitive to developments in his own late seventeenth-century context. In particular, Leslie explores how Owen shares a growing concern to ground Christian faith in objective evidence, all-the-while ensuring that its ultimate foundation lies in the irresistible authority and truthfulness of God, mediated “in and by” the inspired text of scripture. Leslie also draws out the broader significance Owen ascribes to scripture in shaping a believer’s relationship with the Triune God, especially its vital role in their gradual transformation into the likeness or image of Christ.

The Thiselton Companion to Christian Theology

Author:Anthony C. Thiselton

Publisher:Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing


Total Pages:884



Books Description:

Covering everything from “Abba” to “Zwingli,” The Thiselton Companion to Christian Theology offers a comprehensive account of a wide sweep of topics and thinkers in Christian theology. Written entirely by eminent scholar Anthony Thiselton, the book features a coherence lacking in most multiauthored volumes. Drawing on his encyclopedic knowledge, gained from fifty-plus years of study and teaching, Thiselton provides some six hundred articles on various aspects of theology throughout the centuries. The entries comprise both short descriptive surveys and longer essays of original assessment on central theological topics -- such as atonement, Christology, God, and Holy Spirit -- and on such theologians as Aquinas, Augustine, Barth, Calvin, Küng, Luther, Moltmann, and Pannenberg. The book also includes a helpful time chart dating all of the theologians discussed and highlighting key events in Christian history; select reading suggestions conclude each of the longer entries. Equally valuable for research and teaching, The Thiselton Companion to Christian Theology will be a go-to reference for pastors, students, teachers, and theologians everywhere.

Communication, Legitimation and Morality in Modern Politics

Author:Uriel Abulof,Markus Kornprobst



Total Pages:142



Books Description:

Why? This question drives scientific inquiry, not least in the social sciences: why war, revolution, racism and inequality? Asking and debating about ‘why?’, however, is not the prerogative of scholars; social actors, endowed with thought, reflection and speech, do it too. While we all dance to the beat of genes, emotions, identities and habituated norms, we occasionally stop to ask ‘why?’ The social sciences have been long preoccupied with the ostensibly objective ‘why’ while sidelining the social, intersubjective ‘why?’ This book focuses on the latter, analysing the social actors’ search for justification in their public, political sphere. Justifications, broadly understood, are answers to why-questions given and debated by social actors. The chapters focus on public justifications. While the contributors do not submit that private encounters addressing why-questions do not matter, they choose to put public encounters addressing these questions under scrutiny. Given the ongoing telecommunications revolution, and new political practices associated with it, these public encounters become increasingly pertinent in our evolving political orders. This book originally published as a special issue in Contemporary Politics.

Locations of God

Author:Mark G. Brett

Publisher:Oxford University Press


Total Pages:224



Books Description:

The Hebrew Bible is hardly what might be called a "unified" account of the national history of Israel. The texts, with their myriad genres and competing perspectives, show the forming and re-forming of Ancient Israel's social body in a number of geographical settings. The communities are shown in and out of political power. We read about in-fighting and peace, good kings and bad, freedom and subjugation. Ultimately, the Hebrew Bible is a text about nationhood and empire in the ancient world. Critical reflection on the intersections of religious and political life--which includes such topics as sovereignty, leadership, law, peoplehood, hospitality, redemption, creation, and eschatology--can be broadly termed "Political Theology." In Locations of God, Mark G. Brett focuses primarily on the historical books of the Bible, comparing them against the lived realities of life under the Assyrian Empire that overshadowed much of ancient Israel's political life. Brett suggests that an imaginary nation and its imperial alternatives were woven into the biblical traditions by authors who enjoyed very little in the way of political sovereignty. Using political theology to motivate the discussion, Brett shows us just how the earthly situation of ancient Israel contributed to its theology as reflected in the Hebrew Bible.