The Crown of Thorns

Author:

Publisher:Elsevier

ISBN:0444599967

Total Pages:156

Viewed:301

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Books Description:

Frequent updating of existing interpretation codes and routines is a prerequisite for modern seismogram interpretation and research. The primary goal of this book is to present in a rather tutorial form all the necessary information and techniques pertinent to essential seismogram interpretation. The treatment is descriptive rather then mathematical, and emphasis is placed on practical aspects, especially for the benefit of students and junior seismogram interpreters affiliated to seismographic stations and observatories. Those workers more knowledgeable in seismology, and curious enough in the detailed deciphering of seismogram peculiarities, will also find the presentation useful. The book is divided into two parts: a verbal description (Chapters 1-6) and a collection of 55 plates (Chapter 7) with interpretations. The verbal description explains in a rather elementary form the most fundamental physical phenomena relevant to seismogram appearance. The collection of plates exhibits a large variety of seismogram examples, and the corresponding interpretations cover different seismic sources (tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, underground explosions, cavity collapse, sonic booms), wave types, epicentral distances, focal depths and recording instruments (analog, digital, short- and long-period, broad band). The book compliments older manuals in that both analog and digital records are considered. Seismograms from more traditional narrow-band as well as from modern, broad-band instruments are displayed. Tectonic and volcanic earthquakes are represented, and the exhibited seismograms form a worldwide collection of records acquired from seismographic stations located in North and Central America, Asia, Europe and New Zealand, i.e. in various geological and tectonic environments. Terminology and usage of definition does vary among agencies in different parts of the world; that used in this book is common to Europe.

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Routine Data Processing in Earthquake Seismology

Author:Jens Havskov,Lars Ottemoller

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:9048186978

Total Pages:347

Viewed:1179

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Books Description:

The purpose of this book is to get a practical understanding of the most common processing techniques in earthquake seismology. The book deals with manual methods and computer assisted methods. Each topic will be introduced with the basic theory followed by practical examples and exercises. There are manual exercises entirely based on the printed material of the book, as well as computer exercises based on public domain software. Most exercises are computer based. The software used, as well as all test data are available from http://extras.springer.com. This book is intended for everyone processing earthquake data, both in the observatory routine and in connection with research. Using the exercises, the book can also be used as a basis for university courses in earthquake processing. Since the main emphasis is on processing, the theory will only be dealt with to the extent needed to understand the processing steps, however references will be given to where more extensive explanations can be found. Includes: • Exercises • Test data • Public domain software (SEISAN) available from http://extras.springer.com

Introduction to Volcanic Seismology

Author:Vyacheslav M Zobin

Publisher:Elsevier

ISBN:0444563768

Total Pages:474

Viewed:430

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Books Description:

Volcanic seismology represents the main, and often the only, tool to forecast volcanic eruptions and to monitor the eruption process. This book describes the main types of seismic signals at volcanoes, their nature and spatial and temporal distributions at different stages of eruptive activity. Following from the success of the first edition, published in 2003, the second edition consists of 19 chapters including significant revision and five new chapters. Organized into four sections, the book begins with an introduction to the history and topic of volcanic seismology, discussing the theoretical and experimental models that were developed for the study of the origin of volcanic earthquakes. The second section is devoted to the study of volcano-tectonic earthquakes, giving the theoretical basis for their occurrence and swarms as well as case stories of volcano-tectonic activity associated with the eruptions at basaltic, andesitic, and dacitic volcanoes. There were 40 cases of volcanic eruptions at 20 volcanoes that occurred all over the world from 1910 to 2005, which are discussed. General regularities of volcano-tectonic earthquake swarms, their participation in the eruptive process, their source properties, and the hazard of strong volcano-tectonic earthquakes are also described. The third section describes the theoretical basis for the occurrence of eruption earthquakes together with the description of volcanic tremor, the seismic signals associated with pyroclastic flows, rockfalls and lahars, and volcanic explosions, long-period and very-long-period seismic signals at volcanoes, micro-earthquake swarms, and acoustic events. The final section discuss the mitigation of volcanic hazard and include the methodology of seismic monitoring of volcanic activity, the examples of forecasting of volcanic eruptions by seismic methods, and the description of seismic activity in the regions of dormant volcanoes. This book will be essential for students and practitioners of volcanic seismology to understand the essential elements of volcanic eruptions. Provides a comprehensive overview of seismic signals at different stages of volcano eruption. Discusses dozens of case histories from around the world to provide real-world applications. Illustrations accompany detailed descriptions of volcano eruptions alongside the theories involved.

Increasing Seismic Safety by Combining Engineering Technologies and Seismological Data

Author:Marco Mucciarelli,Marijan Herak,John Cassidy

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:1402091966

Total Pages:382

Viewed:1628

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Books Description:

The current state-of-the-art allows seismologists to give statistical estimates of the probability of a large earthquake striking a given region, identifying the areas in which the seismic hazard is the highest. However, the usefulness of these estimates is limited, without information about local subsoil conditions and the vulnerability of buildings. Identifying the sites where a local ampli?cation of seismic shaking will occur, and identifying the buildings that will be the weakest under the seismic shaking is the only strategy that allows effective defence against earthquake damage at an affordable cost, by applying selective reinforcement only to the structures that need it. Unfortunately, too often the Earth’s surface acted as a divide between seism- ogists and engineers. Now it is becoming clear that the building behaviour largely depends on the seismic input and the buildings on their turn act as seismic sources, in an intricate interplay that non-linear phenomena make even more complex. These phenomena are often the cause of observed damage enhancement during past ear- quakes. While research may pursue complex models to fully understand soil dyn- ics under seismic loading, we need, at the same time, simple models valid on average, whose results can be easily transferred to end users without prohibitive expenditure. Very complex models require a large amount of data that can only be obtained at a very high cost or may be impossible to get at all.

Microearthquake Seismology and Seismotectonics of South Asia

Author:J.R. Kayal

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:1402081804

Total Pages:503

Viewed:1076

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Books Description:

This volume is the outcome of about 30 years of research in the field of earthquake seismology in various parts of South Asia. It comprehensively deals with topics raning from plate tectonics to seismic waves in general. State-of-the-art techniques in earthquake location/relocation, fault plane solution, waveform inversion, seismic tomography, fractals etc. are discussed, and the results are interpreted in terms of seismic source processes in the region.

Historical Seismology

Author:Julien Fréchet,Mustapha Meghraoui,Massimiliano Stucchi

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:1402082223

Total Pages:446

Viewed:1666

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Books Description:

Modern seismology has faced new challenges in the study of earthquakes and their physical characteristics. This volume is dedicated to the use of new approaches and presents a state-of-the-art in historical seismology. Selected historical and recent earthquakes are chosen to document and constrain related seismic parameters using updated methodologies in the macroseismic analysis, field observations of damage distribution and tectonic effects, and modelling of seismic waveforms.

Concrete Buildings in Seismic Regions, Second Edition

Author:George G. Penelis,Gregory G. Penelis

Publisher:CRC Press

ISBN:1351578774

Total Pages:801

Viewed:815

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Books Description:

Reinforced concrete (R/C) is one of the main building materials used worldwide, and an understanding of its structural performance under gravity and seismic loads, albeit complex, is crucial for the design of cost effective and safe buildings. Concrete Buildings in Seismic Regions comprehensively covers of all the analysis and design issues related to the design of reinforced concrete buildings under seismic action. It is suitable as a reference to the structural engineer dealing with specific problems during the design process and also for undergraduate and graduate structural, concrete and earthquake engineering courses. This revised edition provides new and significantly developed coverage of seismic isolation and passive devices, and coverage of recent code modifications as well as notes on future developments of standards. It retains an overview of structural dynamics, the analysis and design of new R/C buildings in seismic regions, post-earthquake damage evaluation, pre-earthquake assessment of buildings and retrofitting procedures, and several numerical examples. The book outlines appropriate structural systems for many types of buildings, explores recent developments, and covers the last two decades of analysis, design, and earthquake engineering. It specifically addresses seismic demand issues and the basic issues of structural dynamics, considers the "capacity" of structural systems to withstand seismic effects in terms of strength and deformation, and highlights the assessment of existing R/C buildings under seismic action. All of the material has been developed to fit a modern seismic code and offers in-depth knowledge of the background upon which the code rules are based. It complies with European Codes of Practice for R/C buildings in seismic regions, and includes references to current American Standards for seismic design.

Earthquake Engineering for Structural Design

Author:Victor Gioncu,Federico Mazzolani

Publisher:CRC Press

ISBN:1482266288

Total Pages:570

Viewed:559

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Books Description:

Developments in Earthquake Engineering have focussed on the capacity and response of structures. They often overlook the importance of seismological knowledge to earthquake-proofing of design. It is not enough only to understand the anatomy of the structure, you must also appreciate the nature of the likely earthquake. Seismic design, as detailed in this book, is the bringing together of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology. It focuses on the seismological aspects of design – analyzing various types of earthquake and how they affect structures differently. Understanding the distinction between these earthquake types and their different impacts on buildings can make the difference between whether a building stands or falls, or at least to how much it costs to repair. Covering the basis and basics of the major international codes, this is the essential guide for professionals working on structures in earthquake zones around the world.

Living on an Active Earth

Author:National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on the Science of Earthquakes

Publisher:National Academies Press

ISBN:9780309169097

Total Pages:430

Viewed:847

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Books Description:

The destructive force of earthquakes has stimulated human inquiry since ancient times, yet the scientific study of earthquakes is a surprisingly recent endeavor. Instrumental recordings of earthquakes were not made until the second half of the 19th century, and the primary mechanism for generating seismic waves was not identified until the beginning of the 20th century. From this recent start, a range of laboratory, field, and theoretical investigations have developed into a vigorous new discipline: the science of earthquakes. As a basic science, it provides a comprehensive understanding of earthquake behavior and related phenomena in the Earth and other terrestrial planets. As an applied science, it provides a knowledge base of great practical value for a global society whose infrastructure is built on the Earth's active crust. This book describes the growth and origins of earthquake science and identifies research and data collection efforts that will strengthen the scientific and social contributions of this exciting new discipline.

Textbook of Seismic Design

Author:G. R. Reddy,Hari Prasad Muruva,Ajit Kumar Verma

Publisher:Springer

ISBN:9811331766

Total Pages:553

Viewed:368

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Books Description:

This book focuses on the seismic design of Structures, Piping Systems and Components (SSC). It explains the basic mechanisms of earthquakes, generation of design basis ground motion, and fundamentals of structural dynamics; further, it delves into geotechnical aspects related to the earthquake design, analysis of multi degree-of-freedom systems, and seismic design of RC structures and steel structures. The book discusses the design of components and piping systems located at the ground level as well as at different floor levels of the structure. It also covers anchorage design of component and piping system, and provides an introduction to retrofitting, seismic response control including seismic base isolation, and testing of SSCs. The book is written in an easy-to-understand way, with review questions, case studies and detailed examples on each topic. This educational approach makes the book useful in both classrooms and professional training courses for students, researchers, and professionals alike.

Seismicity in Mines

Author:G. Gibowicz

Publisher:Birkhäuser

ISBN:3034892705

Total Pages:404

Viewed:775

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Books Description:

Recent seismological research has focused on processes other than pure shear failure (double-couple) as an alternative mechanism for some types of seismic events. This has been stimulated by what appears to be anomalous focal mecha nisms observed for several earthquakes of possible volcanic nature in the 1980 Mammoth Lakes, California sequence (JULIAN and SIPKIN, 1985; SIPKIN, 1986). Although studies have concentrated on earthquakes associated with magmatic processes, possible non-double-couple seismic failure has been observed, but not widely known, in cases of mine seismicity in the past three decades. Such cases have occurred on a world-wide basis; however, no cases until now have been observed in the United States. The existence of non-double-couple failure in mine seismicity has been controversial as it has been for tectonic/volcanic earthquakes. Several of the benchmark studies of mine seismicity in the deep South African gold mines have resulted in the belief that no fundamental distinction in the source mechanism exists between tectonic earthquakes and rock bursts (MCGARR, 1984); both types of events are the result of pure shear failure. However, the reported cases of implo sional focal mechanisms for mine seismicity continue to increase in number and prolong the controversy. During the summer of 1984, a three-dimensional, high resolution micro earthquake network was operated by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in the vicinity of two coal mines beneath Gentry Mountain in the eastern Wasatch Plateau of central Utah.

Full Seismic Waveform Modelling and Inversion

Author:Andreas Fichtner

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:9783642158070

Total Pages:343

Viewed:1315

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Books Description:

Recent progress in numerical methods and computer science allows us today to simulate the propagation of seismic waves through realistically heterogeneous Earth models with unprecedented accuracy. Full waveform tomography is a tomographic technique that takes advantage of numerical solutions of the elastic wave equation. The accuracy of the numerical solutions and the exploitation of complete waveform information result in tomographic images that are both more realistic and better resolved. This book develops and describes state of the art methodologies covering all aspects of full waveform tomography including methods for the numerical solution of the elastic wave equation, the adjoint method, the design of objective functionals and optimisation schemes. It provides a variety of case studies on all scales from local to global based on a large number of examples involving real data. It is a comprehensive reference on full waveform tomography for advanced students, researchers and professionals.

An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration

Author:Philip Kearey,Michael Brooks,Ian Hill

Publisher:John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:1118698932

Total Pages:272

Viewed:341

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Books Description:

This new edition of the well-established Kearey and Brooks text is fully updated to reflect the important developments in geophysical methods since the production of the previous edition. The broad scope of previous editions is maintained, with even greater clarity of explanations from the revised text and extensively revised figures. Each of the major geophysical methods is treated systematically developing the theory behind the method and detailing the instrumentation, field data acquisition techniques, data processing and interpretation methods. The practical application of each method to such diverse exploration applications as petroleum, groundwater, engineering, environmental and forensic is shown by case histories. The mathematics required in order to understand the text is purposely kept to a minimum, so the book is suitable for courses taken in geophysics by all undergraduate students. It will also be of use to postgraduate students who might wish to include geophysics in their studies and to all professional geologists who wish to discover the breadth of the subject in connection with their own work.

Observing the Volcano World

Author:Carina J. Fearnley,Deanne K. Bird,Katharine Haynes,William J. McGuire,Gill Jolly

Publisher:Springer

ISBN:3319440977

Total Pages:771

Viewed:1211

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Books Description:

This open access book provides a comprehensive overview of volcanic crisis research, the goal being to establish ways of successfully applying volcanology in practice and to identify areas that need to be addressed for future progress. It shows how volcano crises are managed in practice, and helps to establish best practices. Consequently the book brings together authors from all over the globe who work with volcanoes, ranging from observatory volcanologists, disaster practitioners and government officials to NGO-based and government practitioners to address three key aspects of volcanic crises. First, the book explores the unique nature of volcanic hazards, which makes them a particularly challenging threat to forecast and manage, due in part to their varying spatial and temporal characteristics. Second, it presents lessons learned on how to best manage volcanic events based on a number of crises that have shaped our understanding of volcanic hazards and crises management. Third, it discusses the diverse and wide-ranging aspects of communication involved in crises, which merge old practices and new technologies to accommodate an increasingly challenging and globalised world. The information and insights presented here are essential to tapping established knowledge, moving towards more robust volcanic crises management, and understanding how the volcanic world is perceived from a range of standpoints and contexts around the globe.

Physical Geology of Shallow Magmatic Systems

Author:Christoph Breitkreuz,Sergio Rocchi

Publisher:Springer

ISBN:3319140841

Total Pages:409

Viewed:927

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Books Description:

This book offers a high-level summary of shallow magmatic systems (dykes, sills and laccoliths) to support geoscience master and PhD students, scientists and practicing professionals. The product of the LASI (Laccoliths and Sills conference) workshop, it comprises thematic sections written by one or more experts on the respective field. It features reviews concerning the physical properties of magma, geotectonic settings, and the structure of subvolcanic systems, as well as case studies on the best-known systems. The book provides readers a broad and comprehensive understanding of the subvolcanic perspective on pluton growth, which is relevant for mineralogical processes as well as the genesis of mineral deposits.

Of Poles and Zeros

Author:F. Scherbaum

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:1402068611

Total Pages:270

Viewed:339

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Books Description:

Digital signal processing has become an integral part of observational seismology. Seismic waveforms and the parameters commonly extracted from them are strongly influenced by the effects of numerous filters, both within the earth and within the recording system. With the advent of numerous software tools for the processing of digital seismograms, seismologists have unprecedented power in extracting information from seismic records. These tools are often based on sophisticated theoretical aspects of digital signal processing which, to be used properly, need to be understood. This book is aimed at observational seismologists and students in geophysics trying to obtain a basic understanding of those aspects of digital signal processing that are relevant to the interpretation of seismograms. It covers the basic theory of linear systems, the design and analysis of simple digital filters, the effect of sampling and A/D conversion, the calculation of 'true ground motion', and the effects of seismic recording systems on parameters extracted from digital seismograms. It contains numerous examples and exercises together with their solutions. The second edition contains the Digital Seismology Tutor by Elke Schmidtke (University of Potsdam) and Frank Scherbaum, a Java applet with all the tools to reproduce and/or modify the examples and problems from this book as well as a treatment of sigma-delta modulation with new problems and exercises.