The Crown of Thorns

Author:,

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:3642719767

Total Pages:282

Viewed:1551

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Books Description:

Semiconductor technology has developed considerably during the past several decades. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power has been achieved by a constant scaling down of integrated cir,cuits. Smaller fea ture sizes result in increased functional density, faster speed, and lower costs. One key ingredient of the LSI technology is the development of the lithog raphy and microfabrication. The current minimum feature size is already as small as 0.2 /tm, beyond the limit imposed by the wavelength of visible light and rapidly approaching fundamental limits. The next generation of devices is highly likely to show unexpected properties due to quantum effects and fluctuations. The device which plays an important role in LSIs is MOSFETs (metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors). In MOSFETs an inversion layer is formed at the interface of silicon and its insulating oxide. The inversion layer provides a unique two-dimensional (2D) system in which the electron concentration is controlled almost freely over a very wide range. Physics of such 2D systems was born in the mid-1960s together with the development of MOSFETs. The integer quantum Hall effect was first discovered in this system.

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Nanophysics: Coherence and Transport

Author:,

Publisher:Elsevier

ISBN:9780080461243

Total Pages:640

Viewed:941

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Books Description:

The developments of nanofabrication in the past years have enabled the design of electronic systems that exhibit spectacular signatures of quantum coherence. Nanofabricated quantum wires and dots containing a small number of electrons are ideal experimental playgrounds for probing electron-electron interactions and their interplay with disorder. Going down to even smaller scales, molecules such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes or hydrogen molecules can now be inserted in nanocircuits. Measurements of transport through a single chain of atoms have been performed as well. Much progress has also been made in the design and fabrication of superconducting and hybrid nanostructures, be they normal/superconductor or ferromagnetic/superconductor. Quantum coherence is then no longer that of individual electronic states, but rather that of a superconducting wavefunction of a macroscopic number of Cooper pairs condensed in the same quantum mechanical state. Beyond the study of linear response regime, the physics of non-equilibrium transport (including non-linear transport, rectification of a high frequency electric field as well as shot noise) has received much attention, with significant experimental and theoretical insights. All these quantities exhibit very specific signatures of the quantum nature of transport, which cannot be obtained from basic conductance measurements. Basic concepts and analytical tools needed to understand this new physics are presented in a series of theoretical fundamental courses, in parallel with more phenomenological ones where physics is discussed in a less formal way and illustrated by many experiments. · Electron-electron interactions in one-dimensional quantum transport · Coulomb Blockade and Kondo physics in quantum dots · Out of equilibrium noise and quantum transport · Andreev reflection and subgap nonlinear transport in hybrid N/S nanosructures. · Transport through atomic contacts · Solid state Q-bits · Written by leading experts in the field, both theorists and experimentalists

Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics

Author:Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

Publisher:Oxford University Press

ISBN:019108879X

Total Pages:600

Viewed:798

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Books Description:

This book contains lecture notes by world experts on one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in physics. Topological quantum phenomena are being uncovered at unprecedented rates in novel material systems. The consequences are far reaching, from the possibility of carrying currents and performing computations without dissipation of energy, to the possibility of realizing platforms for topological quantum computation.The pedagogical lectures contained in this book are an excellent introduction to this blooming field. The lecture notes are intended for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students in physics and mathematics who want to immerse in this exciting XXI century physics topic. This Les Houches Summer School presents an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its placement on the map of fundamental physics advancements. The School comprised a set of basic lectures (part 1) aimed at a pedagogical introduction of the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectures (part 2) covering individual topics at the forefront of today's research in condensed-matter physics.

Quantum Foundations And Open Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes Of The Advanced School

Author:Nieuwenhuizen Theo M,Pombo Claudia,Furtado Claudio

Publisher:World Scientific

ISBN:9814616745

Total Pages:612

Viewed:1930

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Books Description:

The Advanced School on Quantum Foundations and Open Quantum Systems was an exceptional combination of lectures. These comprise lectures in standard physics and investigations on the foundations of quantum physics.On the one hand it included lectures on quantum information, quantum open systems, quantum transport and quantum solid state. On the other hand it included lectures on quantum measurement, models for elementary particles, sub-quantum structures and aspects on the philosophy and principles of quantum physics.The special program of this school offered a broad outlook on the current and near future fundamental research in theoretical physics.The lectures are at the level of PhD students.

Physics of Atomic Nuclei

Author:Vladimir Zelevinsky,Alexander Volya

Publisher:John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:3527693602

Total Pages:688

Viewed:797

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Books Description:

This advanced textbook presents an extensive and diverse study of low-energy nuclear physics considering the nucleus as a quantum system of strongly interacting constituents. The contents guide students from the basic facts and ideas to more modern topics including important developments over the last 20 years, resulting in a comprehensive collection of major modern-day nuclear models otherwise unavailable in the current literature. The book emphasizes the common features of the nucleus and other many-body mesoscopic systems currently in the center of interest in physics. The authors have also included full problem sets that can be selected by lecturers and adjusted to specific interests for more advanced students, with many chapters containing links to freely available computer code. As a result, readers are equipped for scientific work in mesoscopic physics.

Nano-Physics and Bio-Electronics

Author:T. Chakraborty,F. Peeters,U. Sivan

Publisher:Elsevier

ISBN:9780080537245

Total Pages:362

Viewed:312

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Books Description:

This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany during August 6-30, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale science in science and bio-electronics Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power and the size of dynamic memorie has been achieved by significant downscaling of the minimum feature size. Smaller feature sizes result in increased functional density, faster speed, and lower costs. In this process one is reaching the limits where quantum effects and fluctuations are beginning to play an important role. This book reflects the achievements of the present times and future directions of research on nanoscopic dimensions.

From Atomic to Mesoscale

Author:Svetlana A Malinovskaya,Irina Novikova

Publisher:World Scientific

ISBN:9814678716

Total Pages:272

Viewed:580

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Books Description:

This volume presents the latest advancements and future developments of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and its vital role in modern sciences and technologies. The chapters are devoted to studies of a wide range of quantum systems, with an emphasis on understanding of quantum coherence and other quantum phenomena originated from light-matter interactions. The book intends to survey the current research landscape and to highlight major scientific trends in AMO physics as well as those interfacing with interdisciplinary sciences. The volume may be particularly useful for young researchers working on establishing their scientific interests and goals. Contents:Collective Phenomena and Long-Range Interactions in Ultracold Atoms and Molecules:Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Molecules (M L Wall, K R A Hazzard and A M Rey)Optical Manipulation of Light Scattering in Cold Atomic Rubidium (R G Olave, A L Win, K Kemp, S J Roof, S Balik, M D Havey, I M Sokolov and D V Kupriyanov)Seeing Spin Dynamics in Atomic Gases (D M Stamper-Kurn)Atom-like Coherent Solid State Systems:Precision Magnetic Sensing and Imaging Using NV-Diamond (R L Walsworth)Entanglement and Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots (A P Burgers, J R Schaibley and D G Steel)Coherent Nanophotonics and Plasmonics:Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials (M Y Shalaginov, S Bogdanov, V V Vorobyov, A S Lagutchev, A V Kildishev, A V Akimov, A Boltassevaand V M Shalaev)Linear Optical Properties of Periodic Hybrid Materials at Oblique Incidence: A Numerical Approach (A Blake and M Sukharev)Fundamental Physics:An Introduction to Boson-Sampling (B T Gard, K R Motes, J P Olson, P P Rohde and J P Dowling)New Approach to Quantum Amplification by Superradiant Emission of Radiation (G Shchedrin, Y Rostovtsev, X Zhang and M O Scully)Ultrafast Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields:Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses and Molecular Atto-Magnetism (A D Bandrauk and K-J Yuan)Many-Electron Response of Gas-Phase Fullerene Materials to Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Photons (H S Chakraborty and M Magrakvelidze)Ultracold Chemistry:Collisions and Reactions in Ultracold Gases (N Balakrishnan and J Hazra) Readership: For professional researchers as well as young academics in the field of Atomic, Molecular and Optical (AMO) physics. Key Features:The contributors for this volume are all internationally recognized experts in their fieldsThis book offers a unique overview of the state of current AMO physics, while outlining future directions. No comparable titles have been identified so far (by editors or by reviewers)All contributions include new unpublished research, and will be of interest for anyone pursuing the scientific investigations in the presented areasKeywords:Quantum Coherence;Amo;Atomic Physics;Quantum Control;Ultracold Atoms;Ultracold Molecules;Nv-diamonds;Quantum Dots;Quantum Magnetism;Nanophotonics;Plasmonics;Ultrafast Dynamics;Ultracold Chemistry

Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science

Author:Yehuda B. Band,Yshai Avishai

Publisher:Academic Press

ISBN:0444537872

Total Pages:992

Viewed:313

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Books Description:

Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information theory, decoherence and dissipation, and on applications to nanotechnology, including quantum dots, wires and wells. This book provides a novel approach to Quantum Mechanics whilst also giving readers the requisite background and training for the scientists and engineers of the 21st Century who need to come to grips with quantum phenomena The fundamentals of quantum theory are provided within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology Older books on quantum mechanics do not contain the amalgam of ideas, concepts and tools necessary to prepare engineers and scientists to deal with the new facets of quantum mechanics and their application to quantum information science and nanotechnology As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today There are many excellent quantum mechanics books available, but none have the emphasis on nanotechnology and quantum information science that this book has

Quantum-Enhanced Nonlinear Spectroscopy

Author:Frank Schlawin

Publisher:Springer

ISBN:3319443976

Total Pages:259

Viewed:1728

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Books Description:

This thesis focuses on nonlinear spectroscopy from a quantum optics perspective. First, it provides a detailed introduction to nonlinear optical signals; starting from Glauber’s photon counting formalism, it establishes the diagrammatic formulation, which forms the backbone of nonlinear molecular spectroscopy. The main body of the thesis investigates the impact of quantum correlations in entangled photon states on two-photon transitions, with a particular focus on the time-energy uncertainty, which restricts the possible simultaneous time and frequency resolution in measurements. It found that this can be violated with entangled light for individual transitions. The thesis then presents simulations of possible experimental setups that could exploit this quantum advantage. The final chapter is devoted to an application of the rapidly growing field of multidimensional spectroscopy to trapped ion chains, where it is employed to investigate nonequilibrium properties in quantum simulations.

Progress in Optics

Author:,

Publisher:Elsevier

ISBN:0080879314

Total Pages:360

Viewed:1028

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Books Description:

In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments. Backscattering and Anderson localization of light Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification Invisibility cloaks

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics

Author:Noëlle Pottier

Publisher:Oxford University Press

ISBN:0191574279

Total Pages:491

Viewed:814

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Books Description:

While systems at equilibrium are treated in a unified manner through the partition function formalism, the statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems covers a large variety of situations that are often without apparent connection. This book proposes a unified perspective on the whole set of systems near equilibrium: it brings out the profound unity of the laws which govern them and gathers together a large number of results usually fragmented in the literature. The reader will find in this book a pedagogical account of the fundamental results: physical origins of irreversibility, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Boltzmann equation, linear response, Onsager relations, transport phenomena, Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The book's comprehensive organization makes it valuable both as a textbook about irreversible phenomena and as a reference book for researchers.

Functional Surfaces in Biology III

Author:Stanislav N. Gorb,Elena V. Gorb

Publisher:Springer

ISBN:3319741446

Total Pages:268

Viewed:1184

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Books Description:

This book is devoted to the rapidly growing area of science dealing with structure and properties of biological surfaces in their relation to particular functions. This volume, written by a team of specialists from different disciplines, covers various biological surface functions: sensing, coloration, attachment, drag reduction, moisture harvesting, etc. Because biological surfaces have a virtually endless potential of technological ideas for the development of new materials and systems, inspirations from biology could also be interesting for a broad range of topics in surface engineering. This volume together with two previous volumes “Functional Surfaces in Biology” (vols. 1 & 2 published in 2009) taken together, present a good reference for a novice in the field. The book is intended for use by researchers who are active, or intend to become active, in the field. The appeal of this topic is expected to be broad, ranging from classical biology, biomechanics and physics to such applied fields as materials science and surface engineering.

Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics

Author:Paolo Bettotti

Publisher:CRC Press

ISBN:9814613754

Total Pages:442

Viewed:1338

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Books Description:

Photonics and electronics are endlessly converging into a single technology by exploiting the possibilities created by nanostructuring of materials and devices. It is expected that next-generation optoelectronic devices will show great improvements in terms of performance, flexibility, and energy consumption: the main limits of nanoelectronics will be overcome by using a photonics approach, while nanophotonics will become a mature technology, thanks to miniaturization strategies developed in microelectronics. Mastering such a complex subject requires a multidisciplinary approach and a solid knowledge of several topics. This book gives a broad overview of recent advances in several topical aspects of nanophotonics and nanoelectronics, keeping an eye on real applications of such technologies, and focuses on the possibilities created by advanced photon management strategies in optoelectronic devices. Starting from pure photonic systems, the book provides several examples in which the interaction between photonics and electronics is exploited to achieve faster, compact, and more efficient devices. A large number of figures and tables also support each chapter. This book constitutes a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and professionals working on the development of optoelectronics.

Optics of Aperiodic Structures

Author:Luca Dal Negro

Publisher:CRC Press

ISBN:9814463094

Total Pages:530

Viewed:1883

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Books Description:

This book presents state-of-the-art contributions from a number of leading experts that actively work worldwide in the rapidly growing, highly interdisciplinary, and fascinating fields of aperiodic optics and complex photonics. Edited by Luca Dal Negro, a prominent researcher in these areas of optical science, the book covers the fundamental, computational, and experimental aspects of deterministic aperiodic structures, as well as numerous device and engineering applications to dense optical filters, nanoplasmonics photovoltaics and technologies, optical sensing, light sources, and nonlinear optics.

Quantum Theory of Near-Field Electrodynamics

Author:Ole Keller

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:3642174108

Total Pages:670

Viewed:384

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Books Description:

"Quantum Theory of Near-field Electrodynamics" gives a self-contained account of the fundamental theory of field-matter interaction on a subwavelength scale. The quantum physical behavior of matter (atoms and mesoscopic media) in both classical and quantum fields is treated. The role of local-field effects and nonlocal electrodynamics, and the tight links to the theory of spatial photon localization are emphasized. The book may serve as a reference work in the field, and is of general interest for physicists working in quantum optics, mesoscopic electrodynamics and physical optics. The macroscopic and microscopic classical theories form a good starting point for the quantum approach, and these theories are presented in a manner appropriate for graduate students entering near-field optics.

Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures

Author:Camille Ndebeka-Bandou,Francesca Carosella,Gérald Bastard

Publisher:World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN:1786343045

Total Pages:448

Viewed:417

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Books Description:

This book is an introduction to quantum states and of their scattering in semiconductor nanostructures. Written with exercises and detailed solutions, it is designed to enable readers to start modelling actual electron states and scattering in nanostructures. It first looks at practical aspects of quantum states and emphasises the variational and perturbation approaches. Following this there is analysis of quasi two-dimensional materials, including discussion of the eigenstates of nanostructures, scattering mechanisms and their numerical results. Focussing on practical applications, this book moves away from standard discourse on theory and provides students of physics, nanotechnology and materials science with the opportunity to fully understand the electronic properties of nanostructures. Contents:Practical Quantum Mechanics:Schrödinger EquationBound and Extended StatesApproximate MethodsLandau Quantisation of Electron Motion in Ideal Semiconductor Bulks and HeterostructuresThe Physics of Heterostructures:Background on HeterostructuresElectrons States in NanostructuresBeyond the Ideal WorldScreening at the Semi-Classical ApproximationResults for Static ScatterersResults for Electron-Phonon InteractionBeyond the Born ApproximationExercises Readership: Students of physics, nanoscience and materials science, professionals working with nanomaterials, and researchers.

Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II

Author:David Carfi,Michel L. Lapidus,Erin P. J. Pearse,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen

Publisher:American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN:0821891480

Total Pages:372

Viewed:327

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Books Description:

This volume contains the proceedings from three conferences: the PISRS 2011 International Conference on Analysis, Fractal Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Economics, held November 8-12, 2011 in Messina, Italy; the AMS Special Session on Fractal Geometry in Pure and Applied Mathematics, in memory of Benoît Mandelbrot, held January 4-7, 2012, in Boston, MA; and the AMS Special Session on Geometry and Analysis on Fractal Spaces, held March 3-4, 2012, in Honolulu, HI. Articles in this volume cover fractal geometry and various aspects of dynamical systems in applied mathematics and the applications to other sciences. Also included are articles discussing a variety of connections between these subjects and various areas of physics, engineering, computer science, technology, economics and finance, as well as of mathematics (including probability theory in relation with statistical physics and heat kernel estimates, geometric measure theory, partial differential equations in relation with condensed matter physics, global analysis on non-smooth spaces, the theory of billiards, harmonic analysis and spectral geometry). The companion volume (Contemporary Mathematics, Volume 600) focuses on the more mathematical aspects of fractal geometry and dynamical systems.

Topological Insulators

Author:Gregory Tkachov

Publisher:CRC Press

ISBN:9814613266

Total Pages:182

Viewed:427

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Books Description:

This book is the result of dynamic developments that have occurred in condensed matter physics after the recent discovery of a new class of electronic materials: topological insulators. A topological insulator is a material that behaves as a band insulator in its interior, while acting as a metallic conductor at its surface. The surface current carriers in these systems have Dirac-like nature and are protected by an intrinsic topological order, which is of great interest for both fundamental research and emerging technologies, especially in the fields of electronics, spintronics, and quantum information. The realization of the application potential of topological insulators requires a comprehensive and deep understanding of transport processes in these novel materials. This book explores the origin of the protected Dirac-like states in topological insulators and gives an insight into some of their representative transport properties. These include the quantum spin–Hall effect, nonlocal edge transport, backscattering of helical edge and surface states, weak antilocalization, unconventional triplet p-wave superconductivity, topological bound states, and emergent Majorana fermions in Josephson junctions as well as superconducting Klein tunneling.