The Crown of Thorns

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Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:9048186978

Total Pages:347

Viewed:1974

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Books Description:

The purpose of this book is to get a practical understanding of the most common processing techniques in earthquake seismology. The book deals with manual methods and computer assisted methods. Each topic will be introduced with the basic theory followed by practical examples and exercises. There are manual exercises entirely based on the printed material of the book, as well as computer exercises based on public domain software. Most exercises are computer based. The software used, as well as all test data are available from http://extras.springer.com. This book is intended for everyone processing earthquake data, both in the observatory routine and in connection with research. Using the exercises, the book can also be used as a basis for university courses in earthquake processing. Since the main emphasis is on processing, the theory will only be dealt with to the extent needed to understand the processing steps, however references will be given to where more extensive explanations can be found. Includes: • Exercises • Test data • Public domain software (SEISAN) available from http://extras.springer.com

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Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

Author:Jens Havskov,Gerardo Alguacil

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:1402029691

Total Pages:360

Viewed:1617

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Books Description:

Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors’ practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology is written to be understandable to the broad range of professionals working with seismological instruments and seismic data, whether students, engineers or seismologists. Whether installing seismic stations, networks and arrays, working and calibrating stationary or portable instruments, dealing with response information, or teaching about seismic instruments, professionals and academics now have a practical and authoritative sourcebook. Includes: SEISAN and SEISLOG software systems that are available from http://extras.springer.com and http://www.geo.uib.no/seismo/software/software.html

Seismic Monitoring in Mines

Author:A.J. Mendecki

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:940091539X

Total Pages:262

Viewed:1828

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Books Description:

Routine seismic monitoring in mines was introduced over 30 years ago with two main objectives in mind: • immediate location of larger seIsmIC events to guide rescue operations; • prediction of large rockmass instabilities. The first objective was achieved fairly quickly, but with the subsequent development of mine communication systems, its strategic importance has diminished. The very limited success with prediction can, at least partially, be attributed to three factors: • seismic monitoring systems based on analogue technology that provided noisy and, frequently, poorly calibrated data of limited dynamic range; • the non-quantitative description of a seismic event by at best its local magnitude; and • the resultant non-quantitative analysis of seismicity, frequently through parameters of some statistical distributions, with a somewhat loose but imaginative physical interpretation. The introduction of modern digital seismic systems to mines and progress in the theory and methods of quantitative seismology have enabled the implementation of realtime seismic monitoring as a management tool, quantifying rockmass response to mining and achieving the first tangible results with prediction. A seismic event, being a sudden inelastic deformation within the rockmass, can now routinely be quantified in terms of seismic moment, its tensor, and radiated seismic energy, so that the overall size of, and stress released at, the seismic source can be estimated.

Advances in Seismic Event Location

Author:Cliffort H. Thurber,Nitzan Rabinowitz

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:9401595364

Total Pages:268

Viewed:1753

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Books Description:

Advances in Seismic Event Location provides a broad overview of the fundamental issues involved in seismic event location, and presents a variety of state-of-the-art location methods and applications at a wide range of spatial scales. Three important themes in the book are: seismic monitoring for a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), seismic event location in three-dimensional Earth models, and methods for multiple-event location. Each chapter contains background material to help readers less familiar with the topics covered, as well as to provide abundant references for readers interested in probing deeper into a topic. However, most of the emphasis is on recent advances in methodology and their application. Audience: The book is intended primarily for academic and professional researchers and graduate students in seismology.

Earthquake Data in Engineering Seismology

Author:Sinan Akkar,Polat Gülkan,Torild van Eck

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:9400701527

Total Pages:276

Viewed:946

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Books Description:

This book addresses current activities in strong-motion networks around the globe, covering issues related to designing, maintaining and disseminating information from these arrays. The book is divided into three principal sections. The first section includes recent developments in regional and global ground-motion predictive models. It presents discussions on the similarities and differences of ground motion estimations from these models and their application to design spectra as well as other novel procedures for predicting engineering parameters in seismic regions with sparse data. The second section introduces topics about the particular methodologies being implemented in the recently established global and regional strong-motion databanks in Europe to maintain and disseminate the archived accelerometric data. The final section describes major strong-motion arrays around the world and their historical developments. The last three chapters of this section introduce projects carried out within the context of arrays deployed for seismic risk studies in metropolitan areas. Audience: This timely book will be of particular interest for researchers who use accelerometric data extensively to conduct studies in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology.

Improved Seismic Monitoring - Improved Decision-Making

Author:National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics,Committee on the Economic Benefits of Improved Seismic Monitoring

Publisher:National Academies Press

ISBN:9780309165037

Total Pages:196

Viewed:863

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Books Description:

Improved Seismic Monitoringâ€"Improved Decision-Making, describes and assesses the varied economic benefits potentially derived from modernizing and expanding seismic monitoring activities in the United States. These benefits include more effective loss avoidance regulations and strategies, improved understanding of earthquake processes, better engineering design, more effective hazard mitigation strategies, and improved emergency response and recovery. The economic principles that must be applied to determine potential benefits are reviewed and the report concludes that although there is insufficient information available at present to fully quantify all the potential benefits, the annual dollar costs for improved seismic monitoring are in the tens of millions and the potential annual dollar benefits are in the hundreds of millions.

Of Poles and Zeros

Author:F. Scherbaum

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:1402068611

Total Pages:270

Viewed:1855

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Books Description:

Digital signal processing has become an integral part of observational seismology. Seismic waveforms and the parameters commonly extracted from them are strongly influenced by the effects of numerous filters, both within the earth and within the recording system. With the advent of numerous software tools for the processing of digital seismograms, seismologists have unprecedented power in extracting information from seismic records. These tools are often based on sophisticated theoretical aspects of digital signal processing which, to be used properly, need to be understood. This book is aimed at observational seismologists and students in geophysics trying to obtain a basic understanding of those aspects of digital signal processing that are relevant to the interpretation of seismograms. It covers the basic theory of linear systems, the design and analysis of simple digital filters, the effect of sampling and A/D conversion, the calculation of 'true ground motion', and the effects of seismic recording systems on parameters extracted from digital seismograms. It contains numerous examples and exercises together with their solutions. The second edition contains the Digital Seismology Tutor by Elke Schmidtke (University of Potsdam) and Frank Scherbaum, a Java applet with all the tools to reproduce and/or modify the examples and problems from this book as well as a treatment of sigma-delta modulation with new problems and exercises.

Tsunami Warning and Preparedness

Author:National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Review of the Tsunami Warning and Forecast System and Overview of the Nation's Tsunami Preparedness

Publisher:National Academies Press

ISBN:0309209897

Total Pages:296

Viewed:1702

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Books Description:

Many coastal areas of the United States are at risk for tsunamis. After the catastrophic 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean, legislation was passed to expand U.S. tsunami warning capabilities. Since then, the nation has made progress in several related areas on both the federal and state levels. At the federal level, NOAA has improved the ability to detect and forecast tsunamis by expanding the sensor network. Other federal and state activities to increase tsunami safety include: improvements to tsunami hazard and evacuation maps for many coastal communities; vulnerability assessments of some coastal populations in several states; and new efforts to increase public awareness of the hazard and how to respond. Tsunami Warning and Preparedness explores the advances made in tsunami detection and preparedness, and identifies the challenges that still remain. The book describes areas of research and development that would improve tsunami education, preparation, and detection, especially with tsunamis that arrive less than an hour after the triggering event. It asserts that seamless coordination between the two Tsunami Warning Centers and clear communications to local officials and the public could create a timely and effective response to coastal communities facing a pending tsuanami. According to Tsunami Warning and Preparedness, minimizing future losses to the nation from tsunamis requires persistent progress across the broad spectrum of efforts including: risk assessment, public education, government coordination, detection and forecasting, and warning-center operations. The book also suggests designing effective interagency exercises, using professional emergency-management standards to prepare communities, and prioritizing funding based on tsunami risk.

Computational Seismology

Author:Heiner Igel

Publisher:Oxford University Press

ISBN:0191026859

Total Pages:360

Viewed:1023

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Books Description:

This book is an introductory text to a range of numerical methods used today to simulate time-dependent processes in Earth science, physics, engineering, and many other fields. The physical problem of elastic wave propagation in 1D serves as a model system with which the various numerical methods are introduced and compared. The theoretical background is presented with substantial graphical material supporting the concepts. The results can be reproduced with the supplementary electronic material provided as python codes embedded in Jupyter notebooks. The book starts with a primer on the physics of elastic wave propagation, and a chapter on the fundamentals of parallel programming, computational grids, mesh generation, and hardware models. The core of the book is the presentation of numerical solutions of the wave equation with six different methods: 1) the finite-difference method; 2) the pseudospectral method (Fourier and Chebyshev); 3) the linear finite-element method; 4) the spectral-element method; 5) the finite-volume method; and 6) the discontinuous Galerkin method. Each chapter contains comprehension questions, theoretical, and programming exercises. The book closes with a discussion of domains of application and criteria for the choice of a specific numerical method, and the presentation of current challenges.

Seismicity in Mines

Author:G. Gibowicz

Publisher:Birkhäuser

ISBN:3034892705

Total Pages:404

Viewed:1261

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Books Description:

Recent seismological research has focused on processes other than pure shear failure (double-couple) as an alternative mechanism for some types of seismic events. This has been stimulated by what appears to be anomalous focal mecha nisms observed for several earthquakes of possible volcanic nature in the 1980 Mammoth Lakes, California sequence (JULIAN and SIPKIN, 1985; SIPKIN, 1986). Although studies have concentrated on earthquakes associated with magmatic processes, possible non-double-couple seismic failure has been observed, but not widely known, in cases of mine seismicity in the past three decades. Such cases have occurred on a world-wide basis; however, no cases until now have been observed in the United States. The existence of non-double-couple failure in mine seismicity has been controversial as it has been for tectonic/volcanic earthquakes. Several of the benchmark studies of mine seismicity in the deep South African gold mines have resulted in the belief that no fundamental distinction in the source mechanism exists between tectonic earthquakes and rock bursts (MCGARR, 1984); both types of events are the result of pure shear failure. However, the reported cases of implo sional focal mechanisms for mine seismicity continue to increase in number and prolong the controversy. During the summer of 1984, a three-dimensional, high resolution micro earthquake network was operated by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in the vicinity of two coal mines beneath Gentry Mountain in the eastern Wasatch Plateau of central Utah.

Earthquake Early Warning Systems

Author:Paolo Gasparini,Gaetano Manfredi,Jochen Zschau

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:3540722416

Total Pages:350

Viewed:1792

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Books Description:

The book provides information on the major EEW systems in operation and on the state-of-the-art of the different blocks forming an EW system: the rapid detection and estimation of the earthquake’s focal parameters, the signal transmission, the engineering interface and the information reliability/false alarm problem. It is the first time that so many aspects of EEW systems have been specifically focused upon within a single book.

Recent Advances in Earthquake Engineering in Europe

Author:Kyriazis Pitilakis

Publisher:Springer

ISBN:3319757415

Total Pages:691

Viewed:380

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Books Description:

This book is a collection of invited lectures including the 5th Nicholas Ambraseys distinguished lecture, four keynote lectures and twenty-two thematic lectures presented at the 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in June 2018. The lectures are put into chapters written by the most prominent internationally recognized academics, scientists, engineers and researchers in Europe. They address a comprehensive collection of state-of-the-art and cutting-edge topics in earthquake engineering, engineering seismology and seismic risk assessment and management. The book is of interest to civil engineers, engineering seismologists, seismic risk managers, policymakers and consulting companies covering a wide spectrum of fields from geotechnical and structural earthquake engineering, to engineering seismology and seismic risk assessment and management. Scientists, professional engineers, researchers, civil protection policymakers and students interested in the seismic design of civil engineering structures and infrastructures, hazard and risk assessment, seismic mitigation policies and strategies, will find in this book not only the most recent advances in the state-of-the-art, but also new ideas on future earthquake engineering and resilient design of structures. Chapter 1 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

Earthquake Source Asymmetry, Structural Media and Rotation Effects

Author:Roman Teisseyre,Minoru Takeo,Eugeniusz Majewski

Publisher:Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:3540313370

Total Pages:582

Viewed:830

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Books Description:

This breakthrough book is the first to examine the rotational effects in earthquakes, a revolutionary concept in seismology. Existing models do no yet explain the significant rotational and twisting motions that occur during an earthquake and cause the failure of structures. The rotation and twist effects are investigated and described, and their consequences for designing tall buildings and other important structures are presented. This book will change the way the world views earthquakes.

Grand Challenges in Earthquake Engineering Research

Author:National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics,Committee for the Workshop on Grand Challenges in Earthquake Engineering Researchâ¬"A Vision for NEES Experimental Facilities and Cyberinfrastructure Tools

Publisher:National Academies Press

ISBN:0309214556

Total Pages:102

Viewed:1755

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Books Description:

As geological threats become more imminent, society must make a major commitment to increase the resilience of its communities, infrastructure, and citizens. Recent earthquakes in Japan, New Zealand, Haiti, and Chile provide stark reminders of the devastating impact major earthquakes have on the lives and economic stability of millions of people worldwide. The events in Haiti continue to show that poor planning and governance lead to long-term chaos, while nations like Chile demonstrate steady recovery due to modern earthquake planning and proper construction and mitigation activities. At the request of the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council hosted a two-day workshop to give members of the community an opportunity to identify "Grand Challenges" for earthquake engineering research that are needed to achieve an earthquake resilient society, as well as to describe networks of earthquake engineering experimental capabilities and cyberinfrastructure tools that could continue to address ongoing areas of concern. Grand Challenges in Earthquake Engineering Research: A Community Workshop Report explores the priorities and problems regions face in reducing consequent damage and spurring technological preparedness advances. Over the course of the Grand Challenges in Earthquake Engineering Research workshop, 13 grand challenge problems emerged and were summarized in terms of five overarching themes including: community resilience framework, decision making, simulation, mitigation, and design tools. Participants suggested 14 experimental facilities and cyberinfrastructure tools that would be needed to carry out testing, observations, and simulations, and to analyze the results. The report also reviews progressive steps that have been made in research and development, and considers what factors will accelerate transformative solutions.

Volcanic Unrest

Author:Joachim Gottsmann,Jürgen Neuberg,Bettina Scheu

Publisher:Springer

ISBN:331958412X

Total Pages:313

Viewed:1882

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Books Description:

This open access book summarizes the findings of the VUELCO project, a multi-disciplinary and cross-boundary research funded by the European Commission's 7th framework program. It comprises four broad topics: 1. The global significance of volcanic unrest 2. Geophysical and geochemical fingerprints of unrest and precursory activity 3. Magma dynamics leading to unrest phenomena 4. Bridging the gap between science and decision-making Volcanic unrest is a complex multi-hazard phenomenon. The fact that unrest may, or may not lead to an imminent eruption contributes significant uncertainty to short-term volcanic hazard and risk assessment. Although it is reasonable to assume that all eruptions are associated with precursory activity of some sort, the understanding of the causative links between subsurface processes, resulting unrest signals and imminent eruption is incomplete. When a volcano evolves from dormancy into a phase of unrest, important scientific, political and social questions need to be addressed. This book is aimed at graduate students, researchers of volcanic phenomena, professionals in volcanic hazard and risk assessment, observatory personnel, as well as emergency managers who wish to learn about the complex nature of volcanic unrest and how to utilize new findings to deal with unrest phenomena at scientific and emergency managing levels. This book is open access under a CC BY license.